Ibuprofen

Sounds like 'Ib-u-pro-fen'

Easy-to-read medicine information about Ibuprofen – what it is, how to take it safely and possible side effects.

Type of medicine Also called
  • Analgesics (pain killer)
  • Antipyretic (to control fever)
  • Anti-inflammatory (reduces pain and swelling)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID)  
  • Ibugesic®
  • I-Profen®
  • Nurofen®
  • Advil®
  • ACT-3®
  • Medix®

Ibuprofen is also contained in some other medications such as:

  • Nurofen Plus®
  • Maxigesic®
  • Nurofen Cold and Flu®

What is ibuprofen?

Ibuprofen is in a group of medicines known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ibuprofen is used to treat different types of pain such as headache, migraine, dental pain, back pain or muscle pain, and pain resulting from injury. Read more about pain. It also helps to ease redness, and swelling, and to treat fever

Dose

  • Ibuprofen is available in different brands and strengths.
  • The lower strength (200 mg) tablets can be bought from a supermarket or over-the-counter from a pharmacy. 
  • The higher strength tablets (400 mg, 600 mg, 800 mg) tablets can only be bought on prescription from a pharmacy.
  • The usual dose for adults is 200 mg to 400 mg 3 or 4 times daily if needed.
  • Do not take more than 1200 mg per day without checking with your doctor.
  • Use the lowest dose that works for you and stop as soon as you can.
  • The dose will be different to this if you have been prescribed a tablet which releases ibuprofen slowly; this is called a modified-released tablet.
  • Always follow the directions on the package or pharmacy label. If you are unsure about how much to take, check with your pharmacist.

How to take ibuprofen

  • Take ibuprofen with food or immediately after food, to prevent stomach upset.
  • Take ibuprofen with a full glass of water.
  • Swallow the tablets whole. Do not crush or chew them.
  • Usually you may only need to take ibuprofen for a short period of time, while you have pain or swelling.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol while you are taking ibuprofen. Alcohol can increase the risk of side effects. 
  • It is not harmful if you miss your ibuprofen dose. If you miss a dose, take it when you remember, with or after food. Do not take double the dose.

Take care with ibuprofen

  • For most people taking ibuprofen is safe. However, extra care is needed if you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, stomach ulcers or kidney problems or if you smoke. Discuss with your doctor whether taking ibuprofen is suitable for you. 
  • Non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke, which can lead to death. These serious side effects can occur even in the first weeks of using an NSAID and the risk may increase the longer you are taking them.
  • The risk appears greater at higher doses (such as ibuprofen 2400 mg per day) so use the lowest effective amount for the shortest possible time. Seek medical attention immediately if you experience symptoms such as:
    • chest pain
    • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
    • sudden weakness or numbness in one part or side of the body
    • sudden slurred speech.
  • Some other medicines contain NSAIDs, including those used for colds, flu, so always read the labels and avoid taking multiple medicines that contain NSAIDs.
  • Also see Ibuprofen patient information guide  SafeRx, Waitemata DHB, 2013.

Precautions - before taking ibuprofen

  • Do you have high blood pressure or problems with your heart?
  • Do you have any problems with the way your kidneys or liver works?
  • Have you had stomach ulcers?
  • Are you pregnant or breast-feeding?
  • Do you have any breathing problems?

If so, it’s important that you tell your doctor before you start taking ibuprofen. Sometimes a medicine isn’t suitable for a person with certain conditions, or taking other medicines or it can only be used with extra care.

Possible side effects

Like all medicines, ibuprofen can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them. Often unwanted side effects improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine.

Side effects What should I do?
  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion
  • Stomach discomfort
  • Take ibuprofen with food
  • Talk to your doctor if it is painful.
  • Serious stomach problems such as really bad stomach pain, blood in the stool, black or dark colour in your stool, cough or vomit up blood, or dark coloured vomit
  • Tell your doctor immediately or ring HealthLine on 0800 611 116
  • Signs of allergic reaction such as skin rashes, itching, swelling of the face, lips, mouth or have problems breathing, like a tight chest or shortness of breath
  • Tell your doctor immediately or ring HealthLine on 0800 611 116
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • Weakness in one part or side of the body
  • Slurred speech
  • Tell your doctor immediately or ring HealthLine on 0800 611 116

Interactions

  • Ibuprofen interacts with some medicines, especially those used for high blood pressure, so check with your doctor or pharmacist before you start taking it.
  • Do not take other NSAIDs such as diclofenac or naproxen while taking ibuprofen. This can increase your risk of side effects.
  • Taking NSAIDs together with medicines called ACE inhibitors and diuretics (water pills) can be harmful to your kidneys. If you are taking ACE inhibitors and diuretics, tell your doctor or pharmacist before starting ibuprofen. 
    Examples of ACE inhibitors are captopril, cilazapril, enalapril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril and trandolapril.
    Examples of diuretics are furosemide, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide, chlortalidone, indapamide and metolazone.  
    Read more: The triple whammy SafeRx

Learn more

The following links provide further information about ibuprofen. Be aware that websites from other countries may have information that differs from New Zealand recommendations.

Ibuprofen New Zealand Formulary Patient Information
Ibuprofen for pain and inflammation Patient info, UK

References

  1. Ibuprofen and cardiovascular safety Medsafe Safety Information, 17 June 2015
  2. Ibuprofen New Zealand Formulary
Credits: Sandra Ponen, Pharmacist. Reviewed By: Dr Janine Bycroft, GP, Health Navigator NZ Last reviewed: 31 Jul 2017