Pneumococcal vaccine

Sounds like 'new-mo-cock-al' vaccine

The pneumococcal vaccine is used to prevent infections that are caused by the bug (bacteria) called Pneumococcus. Pneumococcal vaccine is also called Pneumovax 23®, Prevenar® and Synflorix®.

December 2022: Prevenar 13 (PCV13) will replace Synflorix (PCV10) as the funded vaccine used to protect tamariki against pneumococcal disease
  • To increase your child’s protection from pneumococcal infections, Pharmac is now funding a vaccine called Prevenar 13 (replacing Synflorix) which protects against more strains of the infection.
  • All children under 5 years of age will now receive Prevenar 13 as part of their regular childhood immunisations, including those who were given Synflorix when they were immunised earlier.
    • For example, if Synflorix has been given at 6 weeks and 5 months of age, the next pneumococcal vaccination at 12 months would be Prevenar 13 instead of Synflorix.
  • You do not need to re-vaccinate your child if they have already received 3 doses of Synflorix.

What is the pneumococcal vaccine?

Pneumococcal vaccine is used to prevent infections that are caused by the bug (bacteria) called Pneumococcus. These infections can range from sinusitis and ear infections to life-threatening infections like pneumonia or meningitis. Find out more about pneumococcal disease.

Being vaccinated causes your body to produce antibodies against the Pneumococcus bacteria. This means your body can respond faster and more effectively to prevent an infection. It does this because by first coming across a non-infectious version of the bacteria in the vaccine, it learns to recognise it. When it comes across it again, your body can react much faster and in a more effective way.

How effective is the pneumococcal vaccine?

Vaccination is the best way to prevent infection and reduce serious illness if you become infected. The rate of pneumococcal disease in children under the age of 2 years has significantly reduced since vaccination was introduced. 

Which pneumococcal vaccines are available?

In Aotearoa New Zealand there are 2 different brands of pneumococcal vaccine – Pneumovax 23® and Prevenar 13®. They are slightly different to each other as they protect against different types of Pneumoccocus bacteria.

Your child's age and risk factors decide which brand they need to have and when to have the doses. Often the doses are given a few months apart. They need to have completed all of their doses to be fully vaccinated. Some older children and adults may also be eligible for vaccination (see below).

If your child misses starting a course, that’s okay. Speak to your doctor or nurse for advice on when they can have the vaccines.

Dose

  • All infants who are not at high risk of pneumococcal disease should receive the pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar 13 as part of the New Zealand Immunisation Schedule at 6 weeks, 5 months and 12 months of age. 
  • Infants who are high-risk are advised to receive an extra dose of Prevenar 13 at 3 months of age.
  • Some older children and adults with weakened immune systems who are at risk of pneumococcal infection may be eligible for vaccination with Pneumovax 23. Check with your healthcare provider about your eligibility. 

How is the pneumococcal vaccine given?

  • The pneumococcal vaccine is usually given by injection into a muscle, eg, the muscle on your mid-thigh.
  • If you have a condition that makes you bleed more easily than normal, it may be given as an injection underneath your skin.
  • It's safe to get the pneumococcal vaccine at the same time as the seasonal flu vaccine, but at a different injection site.

What are the side effects of pneumococcal vaccine?

Like all medicines, the pneumococcal vaccine can cause side effects, although not everyone gets them. 

Side effects What should I do?
  • Pain, swelling or redness around the injection site
  • This is quite common after having the vaccination.
  • It usually starts a few hours after getting the injection and settles within a few days.
  • Place a cold, wet cloth or ice pack where the injection was given. Leave it on for a short time.
  • Don't rub the injection site.
  • Tell your doctor if these side effects bother you.
  • Read more about:
    After your child is immunised (babies and children)
    After your immunisation (teenagers and adults).
  • Mild fever
Babies and children
  • If your child is hot, it can help to undress them down to a single layer, eg, a singlet and nappies or pants.
  • Make sure the room is not too hot or too cold.
  • The routine use of paracetamol is not recommended following vaccinations, but may be used if your child is miserable or distressed.
  • Read more about after your child is immunised 
Teenagers and adults
  • Rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  • The routine use of paracetamol is not recommended following vaccinations, but may be used for relief of severe discomfort.
  • Read more about After your immunisation 
  • Feeling unwell, tired or weak
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle ache
  • Headache
  • These are quite common for the first 1 or 2 days after receiving the injection.
  • They usually settle within a few days.
  • The routine use of paracetamol is not recommended following vaccinations, but may be used for relief of severe discomfort.
  • Tell your doctor if these side effects bother you.
  • Read more about after your immunisation.
  • Signs of an allergic reaction, such as skin rash, itching, blisters, peeling skin, swelling of your face, lips or mouth or problems breathing
  • Allergic reactions to pneumococcal vaccine are rare.
  • If you develop these signs within a few days of the vaccination, tell your healthcare provider immediately or phone Healthline 0800 611 116.
For more information on side effects, see the consumer information leaflets below.

Did you know that you can report a medicine side effect to the Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM)? Report a side effect to a product.

Where can I get vaccinated?

The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if you’ve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.

If you don’t have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Phone them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.

You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under ‘Select a Service’, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.

Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.

Learn more

The following links have more information on the pneumococcal vaccine. Be aware that websites from other countries may contain information that differs from Aotearoa New Zealand recommendations.

Changing from Synflorix® (PCV10) to Prevenar13® (PCV13) Immunisation Advisory Centre, NZ 
Pneumovax 23Immunisation Advisory Centre, NZ 
Prevenar 13 Immunisation Advisory Centre, NZ 
Pneumovax 23 Medsafe Consumer Information Sheets, NZ
Prevenar Medsafe Consumer Information Sheets, NZ
Synflorix Medsafe Consumer Information Sheets, NZ

Quick answers to frequent pneumococcal vaccine questions Immunisation Advisory Centre, NZ 

References

  1. Pneumococcal disease Immunisation Handbook, NZ, 2020, 
  2. Pneumococcal vaccine NZ Formulary, NZ
Credits: Sandra Ponen, Pharmacist. Reviewed By: Angela Lambie, Pharmacist, Auckland Last reviewed: 02 Dec 2022