Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological reaction to experiencing or witnessing a severely shocking event.

  • It can occur after an event where there was a risk of being killed or injured or seeing others killed or injured, such as an assault, rape or other sexual abuse, car accident or earthquake.
  • The symptoms last for at least a month and include difficulty relaxing, nightmares or flashbacks, and avoiding anything related to what happened.
  • If you think you or someone you know might have PTSD, it’s important to get help. If it’s not treated, it can lead to depression and suicidal thoughts.

What causes PTSD?

PTSD symptoms develop because an event is so shocking that it overwhelms your normal ability to process what has happened. Not everyone who was at the event will get the symptoms, but people who have already had difficulties may be more likely to.

Events that can trigger PTSD include assaults and other serious violence, sexual abuse and rape, car accidents, natural disasters, such as earthquakes, being in a war or terror attack, childbirth, being a refugee, or working as a police officer or firefighter.

What are the symptoms of PTSD?

Common symptoms in adults include:

  • being wired and on edge, watchful or jumpy
  • disturbed sleep with nightmares
  • avoiding situations, people or events that remind you of the event
  • flashbacks of images, memories and thoughts about the event
  • feeling numb and withdrawn or spacey and not present
  • difficulty with memory, concentration and decision-making.

In children look out for:

  • agitated or changed behaviour
  • nightmares
  • repetitive play about the event
  • unexplained physical symptoms.

When should I seek help?

It’s normal to feel shocked and upset after a traumatic event, but if you or your child are still feeling that way a month afterwards, contact your doctor.

Get help sooner if you feel highly distressed and are at risk of harming yourself or someone else. Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and when they started and recommend someone to help you.

How is PTSD treated?

Learning how to safely manage distressing feelings and memories can be a first step. Talking therapy with someone experienced in working with PTSD and who you feel safe with and trust is the best way to recover. Medication for anxiety or depression may also help, in combination with talking therapies.

How can I help myself with PTSD?

  • Take good care of your basic needs, such as sleep, exercise, healthy eating and quiet time.
  • Tell your friends and family – they can support you.
  • Write about or draw what happened and how you feel.
  • Do things that help you feel calm, such as taking a walk or a bath, reading a good book or listening to soothing music.
  • Read about a PTSD app you can download onto your phone. 

Where can I find support?

There may be a support group in your area for people who have had a similar experience. Ask your doctor or therapist. If you need someone to talk to urgently, phone:

  • Lifeline 0800 543 354
  • Healthline 0800 611 116
  • Samaritans 0800 726 666
  • Youthline 0800 376 633

Learn more

Post-traumatic stress disorder Mental Health Foundation.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Better Health Channel
PTSD Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
I can't get over it Books On Prescription, NZ

Patient resources

Self-help guide: Post-traumatic stress Moodjuice
PTSD questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Association of America
PTSD symptoms, self-help, and treatment


Iribarren J, Prolo P, Neagos N, Chiappelli F. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research for the Third Millennium.  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005 Dec; 2(4): 503–512.
Post-traumatic stress disorder

Credits: Health Navigator Editorial Team. Reviewed By: Dr Richard Marchl & Dr Sophie Ball Last reviewed: 26 Feb 2018